July 1
1646 Philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibnitz was born in Leipzig, Saxony.
1656 Quakers arrived in America.
1848 Photographs were used for the first time in a newspaper report. A photographer named Thibault took photos from a rooftop on June 25 of the deserted rue St. Maur with barricades before the Paris Riots of 1848 and of the same street on June 26 with police battling insurgents. More than 3000 Parisians died during the revolt. Wood engravings were made from the daguerreotypes and published in the weekly newspaper L'Illustration Journal Universel on July 1, 1848.
1858 The theory of natural selection, developed by Charles Darwin, was published.

Charles Darwin
1881 The American Red Cross was incorporated with Clara Barton as president.

Clara Barton
1916 Actress Olivia de Havilland was born in Tokyo, Japan.
1934 Film maker Sydney Pollack was born in Lafayette, Indiana.
1941 NBC began broadcasting from the Empire State Building.

Empire State Building

1941 Joe DiMaggio tied Willie Keeler's major league record 44 consecutive-game hitting streak.
1942 Actress Geneviev Bujold was born in Montreal, Canada.
1944 Libertarian activist and author Lew Rockwell was born in Boston, Massachusetts.

Lew Rockwell
1945 Singer Debbie Harry (Blondie) was born in Miami, Florida.
1949 Mama premiered on TV.
1952 Comedian Dan Aykroyd was born in Ottowa, Canada.
1967 Actress and exhibitionist Pamela Anderson was born in Ladysmith, Canada.
1968 Representatives of 61 governments signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

July 2
1776 The Continental Congress declared the United Colonies "are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown."
1904 Tennis champion and clothier Rene Lacoste was born in Paris, France.
1932 Dave Thomas, founder of Wendy's restaurant chain, was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey.

Dave Thomas
1941 Joe DiMaggio surpassed Willie Keeler's major league record 44 consecutive-game hitting streak by hitting a home run in the 5th inning in a game against the Boston Red Sox.

Joe DiMaggio
1962 The first Wal-Mart store opened for business in Rogers, Arkansas.
1978 Ron Guidry won his 13th consecutive game and continued the best start (13-0) for any Yankee pitcher in history.

Ron Guidry

July 3
1776 Maryland declared its independence from England.
1939 At Yankee Stadium, 61,808 fans attended Lou Gehrig Day. Lou Gehrig made a speach during the between-game ceremonies in which he said he considers himself to be the, "luckiest man on the face of the earth."

Lou Gehrig
1947 Humor columnist, author, and libertarian Dave Barry was born in Armonk, New York.
1952 Mr. Peepers, starring Wally Cox, premiered on TV.

Wally Cox
1973 Israeli commandos rescued 103 hostages on a hijacked Air France airliner at Entebbe airport in Uganda.
1962 Movie star Tom Cruise (Thomas Cruise Mapother IV) was born in Syracuse, New York.

July 4
1776 John Hancock, as President of the Continental Congress, signed the Declaration of Independence.

Presenting the Declaration of Independence
1788 George Rogers Clark and his men took Kaskaskia from the British, wresting from them control of the upper middle west.
1804 Novelist and short-story writer Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts.

Nathaniel Hawthorne
1821 Slavery was abolished in New York State.
1826 Composer Stephen Foster was born in Lawrenceville, Pennsylvania.
1845 Henry David Thoreau moved into a cabin at Walden Pond in Massachusetts.

Walden Pond
1878 Composer George M. Cohan was born in Providence, Rhode Island.

George M. Cohan
1881 The Tuskegee Negro Normal Institute opened with Booker T. Washington in charge.
1883 Rube Golberg, cartoonist and engineer who invented elaborate, silly machines to do simple tasks, was born in San Francisco, California.

A Rube Goldberg cartoon
1924 Actress Eva Marie Saint was born in Newark, New Jersey.
1927 Playwright Neil Simon was born in New York City.
1928 Actress and photographer Gina Lollabrigida was born in Auviaco, Italy.
1945 Steven Schwartzman, linguist, mathematician, educator, and photographer, was born.

Steve Schwartzman
1955 The Soupy Sales Show premiered on TV.

July 5
1810 P. T. Barnum of circus fame was born in Bethel, Connecticut.
1846 California declared its independence from Mexico.
1904 Actor Milburn Stone, who played "Doc" on Gunsmoke, was born in Burrton, Kansas.

Milburn Stone as "Doc"
1933 Libertarian scholar Leonard Liggio was born.

Leonard Liggio
1944 Robbie Robertson, musician and songwriter with The Band, was born in Toronto, Canada.
1946 Designer Louis Reard introduced the bikini at a Paris swimming pool.
1950 Singer Huey Lewis (Hugh Anthony Cregg III) was born in New York City.

Huey Lewis
1951 Yankee pitcher Richard Goose Gossage was born in Colorado Springs.
1971 Matthew Halliday was born in Kingston, New York.

Matthew Halliday

July 6
1747 American Revolutionary War hero John Paul Jones was born in Kirkbean, Scotland.
1775 The Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms, prepared by John Dickinson and Thomas Jefferson.
1880 Otto Rohwedder was born in Des Moines, Iowa. He invented the first bread-slicing machine.
1925 Rock-and-roll pioneer Bill Haley was born in Highland Park, Michigan.

Bill Haley
1925 TV game show creator and producer Merv Griffin was born in San Mateo, California.
1927 Comedian Pat Paulson was born in South Bend, Washington.
1927 Actress Janet Leigh was born in Merced, California.

Janet Leigh
1928 The first all-talking moving picture, The Lights of New York, was presented in New York City.
1932 Singer Della Reese (Delores Patricia Early) was born in Detroit, Michigan.
1933 In the first All-Star Game ever played in major league baseball history Babe Ruth hit a 2-run home run to lead the American League to a 4-2 victory over the National League at Cominskey Park.

Babe Ruth
1954 NY Yankee second baseman Willie Randolph was born in Holly Hill, South Carolina.
1957 Paul McCartney was introduced to John Lennon after witnessing his skiffle group, the Quarrymen, at St Peter's Church in Woolton, Liverpool. John soon asked Paul to join the group.
1962 Mickey Mantle hit home runs in his first two at-bats, which, combined with the two home runs in his last two at-bats in his previous game, tied the major league record of four consecutive home runs.

Mickey Mantle

July 7
1906 Pitching great Leroy "Satchel" Paige was born in Mobile, Alabama.

"Satchel" Paige
1907 Robert Heinlein, science fiction writer, was born in Butler, Missouri.

Robert Heinlein
1940 Beatles drummer Richard Starkey (Ringo Starr) was born in Liverpool, England.

Ringo Star
1949 Actress Shelley Duvall was born in Houston, Texas.

Shelly Duvall as Olive Oyl
1973 The Libertarian Party of Canada was founded.

July 8
1776 The Declaration of Independence was read in public for the first time in Philadelphia at what is now called Independence Square.
1783 A Massachusetts Supreme Court decision declared slavery to have been abolished by Article I of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights of 1780.
1839 John D. Rockefeller, creator of the Standard Oil company, was born in Richford, New York.

John D. Rockefeller
1907 The first Ziegfield Follies opened.
1914 Singer and bandleader Billy Eckstine was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
1948 Actress Kim Darby was born in Los Angeles, California.
1951 Actress Anjelica Huston was born in Santa Monica, California.
1958 Actor Kevin Bacon was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

July 9
1776 The Declaration of Independence was formally adopted by the provincial congress in New York.
1819 Elias Howe, inventor of the sewing machine, was born in Spencer, Massachusetts.
1938 Actor Brian Dennehy was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut.
1945 Dean Koontz, author of suspense and horror novels, was born in Everett, Pennsylvania.

Dean Koontz
1956 Actor Tom Hanks was born in Concord, California.

Tom Hanks
1957 Actress Kelly McGillis was born in Newport Beach, California.

July 10
1832 President Andrew Jackson vetoed a bill to re-charter the second Bank of the United States.
1834 Painter James Whistler was born in Lowell, Massachusetts.

A painting by James Whistler that is not of his mother
1856 Physicist and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla was born in Smiljan, Austrian Empire.

Nikola Tesla
1867 Finley Dunne, humorist and the creator Mr. Dooley, was born in Chicago, Illinois.
1871 Author Marcel Proust was born in Auteuil, France.
1920 Newscaster David Brinkley was born in Wilmington, North Carolina.
1943 Tennis star Arthur Ashe was born in Richmond, Virginia.

Arthur Ashe
1970 Power and Market by Murray Rothbard was published.

Murray Rothbard and Power and Market
1985 The Coca-Cola company acceded to consumer demand and announced it will bring back the original Coke and call it "Coca-Cola Classic" when sales of "New" Coke dropped after being on the market for only 10 weeks.

July 11
1838 Merchant John Wanamaker was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
1899 Writer and editor E. B. White was born in Mount Vernon, New York.
1914 Babe Ruth made his major league debut as a pitcher for the Boston Red Sox.
1920 Actor Yul Brynner was born in Vladivostok, Russia.

Yul Brynner
1927 Physicist Theodore Maiman, who developed the first working laser, was born in Los Angeles, California.

July 12
1730 Pottery designer and manufacturer Josiah Wedgwood was born in Burslem, Staffordshire, England.
1817 Naturalist and libertarian writer Henry David Thoreau was born in Concord, Massachusetts.

Henry David Thoreau
1854 Inventor George Eastman was born in Waterville, New York.
1895 Lyricist Oscar Hammerstein was born in New York City.
1908 Comedian and TV pioneer Milton Berle (Mendel Berlinger) was born in Harlem, New York.

Milton Berle
1917 Painter Andrew Wyeth was born in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania.

A painting by Andrew Wyeth
1938 Comedian Bill Cosby was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Bill Cosby
1943 Christine McVie, singer with Fleetwood Mac, was born in Birmingham, England.
1951 Allie Reynolds pitched a no-hitter and New York beat Cleveland 1 to 0.

Allie Reynolds
1952 Actress Cheryl Ladd was born in Huron, South Dakota.

July 13
1787 The Northwest Ordinance, guaranteeing freedom of religion and outlawing slavery in the territory north of the Ohio River, was adopted.
1913 TV show host Dave Garroway was born in Schenectady, New York.
1926 Television was invented by John Baird.
1942 Movie star Harrison Ford was born in Chicago, Illinois.

Harrison Ford
1944 Inventor Erno Rubik was born in Budapest, Hungary.

July 14
1789 A mob stormed the Bastille and released the prisoners in Paris, France.

The Bastille
1853 The World's Fair opened in New York City for its first season.
1910 William Hanna was born in Melrose, New Mexico. He was the co-creator of cartoon characters Tom and Jerry and Yogi Bear.
1911 Actor Thomas Terry Hoar-Stevens (Terry-Thomas) was born in Finchley, London, England.
1918 Movie maker Ingmar Bergman was born in Uppsala, Sweden.
1930 Actress Polly Bergen was born in Knoxville, Tennessee.
1942 Actor and football star Roosevelt "Rosey" Grier was born in Cuthbert, Georgia.

July 15
1606 Artist Rembrandt (Harmenszoon van Rijn) was born in Leiden, Holland.

Paintings by Rembrandt (self-portrait on the left)
1776 The New York delegation to the Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence.
1779 "Mad" Anthony Wayne and his men captured Stony Point, New York, at midnight.
1779 Clement Clark Moore, author of A Visit from St. Nicholas, was born in New York City.
1815 Warmonger Napoleon Bonaparte was captured.
1834 The Inquisition in Spain ended.
1850 Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini, the first American saint and founder of schools, orphanages, convents, and hospitals, was born in Lombardi, Italy.
1876 George W. Bradley pitched the first no-hitter.
1906 Humorist Richard Armour was born in Los Angeles, California.
1935 Football star and actor Alex Karras was born in Gary, Indiana.
1946 Singer Linda Ronstadt was born in Tucson, Arizona.

Linda Ronstadt

July 16
1723 Portrait painter Joshua Reynolds was born in Plympton, Devon, England.

Joshua Reynolds self-portrait
1862 Anti-lynching crusader Ida Wells was born in Holly Springs, Mississippi.
1872 Arctic explorer and discoverer of the South Pole, Roald Amundsen was born near Oslo, Sweden.
1911 Dancer and actress Virginia Katherine McMath (Ginger Rogers) was born in Independence, Missouri.

Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers
1936 The first x-ray photograph of arterial circulation was made in Rochester, New York.
1942 Tennis champion Margaret Court was born in Albury, Australia.

Margaret Court

July 17
1889 Detective novelist Erle Stanley Gardner, who sometimes used the pen name A. A. Fair, was born in Malden, Massachusetts.
1899 Actor James Cagney was born in New York City.

James Cagney in two of his movies
1917 Comedienne Phyllis Diller was born in Lima, Ohio.

Phyllis Diller
1935 Actor Donald Sutherland was born in St. John, New Brunswick, Canada.
1955 Disneyland opened in California.

July 18
1720 Gilbert White, the "Father of British naturalists," was born at Selborne, Hampshire, England.
1811 Novelist William Thackery was born in Calcutta, India
1913 Comedian Richard "Red" Skelton was born in Vincennes, Indiana.
1938 Douglas "Wrong Way" Corrigan landed in Dublin. He had been denied permission to make a nonstop flight from New York to Ireland, and his "navigational error" was seen as deliberate.
1939 Singer Dion Di Mucci was born in the Bronx, New York.
1940 Joe Torre, baseball star and manager of the New York Yankees, was born in New York City.
1940 A helicopter was flown successfully for the first time in Stratford, Connecticut.
1941 Singer Martha Reeves was born in Detroit, Michigan.
1976 Gymnast Nadia Comaneci earned the first perfect score in Olympic history.

Nadia Comaneci

July 19
1814 Samuel Colt, inventor of the revolver, which "made all men equal," was born in Hartford, Connecticut.
1834 Impressionist painter Edgar Degas was born in Paris, France.

Paintings by Edgar Degas
1848 A women's rights convention, which dealt with property rights and divorce, began in Seneca Falls, New York.
1865 Charles Mayo, co-founder of the Mayo Clinic, was born in Rochester, Minnesota.
1896 NY Yankee star (1920-1929) Bob Meusel was born in San Jose, California.

Bob Meusel
1921 Medical physicist Rosalyn Yalow was born in New York City.

July 20
1754 Free-market economist and political theorist Antonie Louis Claude Destutt Comte de Tracy was born in Bourbonnais, France.

Destutt Comte de Tracy
1858 The first game of the first baseball series between NY and Brooklyn was played.
1919 Mountain climber Edmund Hillary was born in Auckland, New Zealand.
1947 Rock musician Carlos Santana was born in Autlan de Navarro, Mexico.

July 21
1779 George Washington established his headquarters at West Point, New York.

West Point, New York
1924 Comedian Don Knotts was born in Morgantown, West Virginia.

Don Knotts
1951 Comedian and actor Robin Williams was born in Chicago, Illinois.

Robin Williams as Popeye the Sailor
1980 Yankee pitching ace C. C. Sabathia was born in Vallejo, California.

C. C. Sabathia

July 22
1620 Pilgrims left Holland bound for the New World.
1822 Biologist Gregor Mendel was born in Heinzendorf, Austria.

Gregor Mendel
1871 The Tweed ring was exposed by the New York Times.
1928 Comedian and actor Dallas Burroughs (Orson Bean) was born in Burlington, Vermont.

Orson Bean
1944 Cy-Young-award-winning Yankee relief pitcher and author Sparky Lyle was born in DuBois, Pennsylvania.

Sparky Lyle
1947 Albert Einstein (Albert Brooks), actor, comedian, director, and script writer (but not a physicist), was born in Los Angeles, California.
1947 Musician and songwriter Don Henley was born in Linden, Texas.
1955 Actor William Dafoe was born in Appleton, Wisconsin.

July 23
1440 Printing was invented.
1846 Henry David Thoreau was jailed for refusing to pay the $1 poll tax to fund the Mexican War and expand the slave-holding states. Thoreau explained, "I cannot for an instant recognize . . . as my government [that] which is the slave's government also." Wendy McElroy explained, "According to some accounts, Emerson visited Thoreau in jail and asked, “Henry, what are you doing in there?” Thoreau replied, “Waldo, the question is what are you doing out there?” Emerson was “out there” because he believed it was shortsighted to protest an isolated evil; society required an entire rebirth of spirituality. Emerson missed the point of Thoreau’s protest, which was not intended to reform society but was simply an act of conscience. If we do not distinguish right from wrong, Thoreau argued that we will eventually lose the capacity to make the distinction and become, instead, morally numb."

Henry David Thoreau
1888 Writer Raymond Chandler was born in Chicago, Illinois.
1889 John L. Sullivan became the world's heavyweight boxing champion.
1904 The ice-cream cone was invented by Charles E. Menches during La Purchase Expo.
1936 Basebal Hall of Fame pitcher Don Drysdale was born Van Nuys, California.
1940 Radio talk-show host Don Imus was born in Riverside, California.

July 24
1802 Novelist and playwright Alexandre Dumas was born in Villers-Cotterets, France.
1897 Aviation pioneer Amelia Earhart was born in Atchison, Kansas.

Amelia Earhart
1963 Basketball star Karl Malone was born in Summerfield, Louisianna.

July 25
1750 Bookseller and Revolutionary War military leader Henry Knox was born in Boston, Massachusetts.
1870 Illustrator and painter Maxfield Parrish was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Maxfield Parrish between two of his paintings
1894 Actor Walter Brennan was born in Lynn, Massachusetts.
1902 Writer Eric Hoffer was born in New York City.
1941 Basketball Hall of Fame center Nate Thurmond was born in Akron, Ohio.
1943 Italian dictator Benito Mussolini was removed from power by the Fascist Grand Council.
1943 Actress Janet Margolin was born in New York City.

Janet Margolin
1954 Football star Walter Payton was born in Columbia, Mississippi.

July 26
1739 Revolutionary warleader and anti-federalist George Clinton was born in Little Britain, New York.
1856 Playwright George Bernard Shaw was born in Dublin, Ireland.

George Bernard Shaw
1894 Writer Aldous Huxley was born in Surrey, England.
1895 Comedienne Gracie Allen was born in San Francisco, California.

Gracie Allen
1897 Writer Paul Gallico was born in New York City.
1922 Actor Jason Robards, Jr. was born in Chicago, Illinois.

Jason Robards, Jr.
1922 Movie maker Blake Edwards was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
1928 Movie maker Stanley Kubrick was born in the Bronx, New York.
1943 Rock star Mick Jagger was born in Dartford, England.
1956 Figure skating champion Dorothy Hamill was born in Chicago, Illinois.
1959 Actor Kevin Spacey was born in South Orange, New Jersey.
1964 Actress Sandra Bullock was born in Arlington, Virginia.

Sandra Bullock

July 27
1776 George Washington established his headquarters at Newburgh, New York.

George Washington in 1772
1866 Cyrus W. Field laid a telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean.
1940 Bugs Bunny made his debut in A Wild Hare.

Bugs Bunny
1947 Yogi Berra began his 148-game errorless streak, a record for major league catchers.

Yogi Berra
1948 Figure skating champion Peggy Fleming was born in San Jose, California.
1974 The House Judiciary Committee voted, 27 to 11, to impeach President Richard Nixon on a charge of obstructing justice.

July 28
1868 The 14th Amendment to the Constitution was declared ratified. It defines citizens of the US and forbids the states from abridging the privileges or immunities of citizens and depriving any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, or denying any person equal protection of the laws.
1892 Comedian Joe E. Brown was born in Holgate, Ohio.
1901 Singer, saxaphone player, and actor Herbert "Rudy" Vallee was born in Island Pond, Vermont.
1902 Philosopher Karl Popper was born in Vienna, Austria.
1943 Basketball Hall of Famer Bill Bradley was born in Crystal City, Missouri.

July 29
1492 The first almanac was printed.
1805 Writer Alexis De Tocqueville was born in Paris, France.
1869 Novelist Booth Tarkington was born in Indianapolis, Indiana.
1892 Actor William Powell was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

William Powell
1930 Bowling great Don Carter was born in St. Louis, Missouri.

Don Carter

July 30
1818 Novelist Emily Bronte was born at Thornton, Yorkshire, England.
1863 Industrialist Henry Ford was born in Dearborn Township, Michigan.

Henry Ford
1890 Yankee guru Charles (Casey) Stengel was born in Kansas City, Missouri.

Casey Stengel
1935 Penguin published its first paperback book and began the modern paperback revolution.
1941 Singer and sonwriter Paul Anka was born in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
1947 Body builder, movie star, and "Governator" Arnold Schwarzenegger was born in Graz, Austria.
1961 Actor Laurence Fishburne was born in Augusta, Georgia.
1963 Basketball star Chris Mullin was born in New York city.
1973 Jesse Halliday was born in Kingston, New York.

Jesse Halliday
1974 Actress Hilary Swank was born in Lincoln, Nebraska.

Hilary Swank

July 31
1922 Yankee outfielder (1948-1959) Hank Baur was born in East St. Lewis, Illinois.

Hank Baur
1951 Tennis champion Evonne Goolagong was born in Griffith, Australia.
1965 Author J. K. Rowling was born in Bristol, England.

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